I didn't know much about Fran Allen, although I've certainly benefited from her work, as has anyone who has ever programmed a computer using a language other than assembler. The interview discusses much of her early work on developing the theory and practice of compilers, and, particular, of compiler optimization. The goal of her work is simple to state:
The user writes a sequential code in the language in a way that's natural for the application and then have the compiler do the optimization and mapping it to the machine and taking advantage of concurrency.
Allen's recollections were interesting because they go a long ways back:
I'm not sure if this is accurate, but I used to believe that the first early work of symbolics for names of variables came from a man named Nat Rochester, on a very early IBM machine, the 701 around 1951. He was in charge of testing it and they wrote programs to test the machine. In the process of doing that, they introduced symbolic variables. Now, I've seen some other things since that make me believe that there were earlier ways of representing information symbolically. It emerged in the early 50's, I think, or maybe even in the 40's. One would have to go back and see exactly how things were expressed in the ENIAC, for one thing.
Anyone who can speak about their work in the days of the 701 and the ENIAC certainly is worth listening to!
The interview with Bernie Cosell is interesting because he's a networking guy, and I've always been fascinated with networking software and how it is developed. Cosell gets credit, along with Dave Walden and Will Crowther, for the early programming of the IMP, the Interface Message Processor, that was the key mechanism in the building of the first computer networks.
As Cosell tells the story, his arrival in the networking field was somewhat accidental, for he started doing other work:
BBN was working on a project with Massachusetts General Hospital to experiment with automating hospitals and I got brought onto that project. I started out as an application programmer because that was all I was good for. I think I spent about three weeks as an application programmer. I quickly became a systems programmer, working on the libraries that they were using.
When my projects ran out, Frank [Heart] would figure out what I should work on next. ... Somehow, Frank had decided that I was to be the third guy on the IMP project.
Cosell's interview contains a number of great passages. I liked this description of a debugging session that he remembered "fondly":
... thousands and thousands of machine cycles later, the program crashed because some data structure was corrupt. But it turns out the data structure was used all the time, so we couldn't put in code that says, "Stop when it changes." So I thought about it for a while and eventually I put in this two- or three-stage patch that when the this first thing happened, it enabled another patch that went through a different part of the code. When that happened, it enabled another patch to put in another thing. And then when it noticed something bad happening, it froze the system. I managed to figure how to delay it until the right time by doing a dynamic patching hack where one path through the code was patched dynamically to another piece of the code.
Nowadays, we programmers are spoiled with our powerful high-level programming languages. With Java's various features, such as the absence of a memory pointer type, bounds-checked arrays, immutable strings, automatic memory management, and so forth, we rarely experience such debugging scenarios. But Cosell's recollection brought back a fair number of memories from my own early days in programming, and it was certainly entertaining to read.
I also thought Cosell's description of the role of the design review was very good, and I wish more people had had his experience in order to be able to comprehend the value of that process:
Another thing that Frank did, on other projects, was design reviews. He had the most scary design reviews and I actually carried that idea forward. People would quake in their boots at his design reviews.
The parts that you did absolutely fine hardly got a mention. We all said, "Oh." But the part that you were most uncomfortable with, we would focus in on. I know some people were terrified of it. The trouble is if you were an insecure programmer you assumed that this was an attack and that you have now been shown up as being incompetent, and life sucks for you.
The reality -- I got to be one the good side of the table occasionally -- was it wasn't. The design review was to help you get your program right. There's nothing we can do to help you for the parts thta you got right and now what you've got is four of the brightest people at BBN helping you fix this part that you hadn't thought through. Tell us why you didn't think it through. Tell us what you were thinking. What did you get wrong? We have 15 minutes and we can help you.
That takes enough confidence in your skill as an engineer, to say, "Well that's wonderful. Here's my problem. I couldn't figure out how to do this and I was hoping you guys wouldn't notice so you'd give me an OK on the design review." The implicit answer was, "Of course you're going to get an OK on the design review because it looks OK. Let's fix that problem while we've got all the good guys here so you don't flounder with it for another week or two."
This is a wonderful description of a process which, if handled correctly, can be incredibly effective. I've personally seen it work that way, from both the giving and receiving end. I've also seen it, far too often, fail, to the extent that it seems that more and more often people don't even attempt design reviews anymore.
It's a shame that people haven't learned how to do a design review effectively, and it's a shame that software managers rarely seem to understand what a powerful tool it is that they aren't using. Perhaps more people will read the Cosell interview and will realize that they have a powerful process improvement available to them.
Fran Allen is the only female programmer interviewed in the book, which is a shame. It would be nice to have had more. Women have been involved in computing since the beginning (think Ada Lovelace, Grace Hopper, etc.). How about, say, Val Henson, or Pat Selinger, or Barbara Liskov?
One last chapter to go...